Americans are, often with justification, regarded as being poorly versed in philosophy. This is a shame, as the United States and the colonies that proceeded it have produced many great thinkers. Here is a list of ten of the greatest philosophers the United States has given the world.
Please note, several great American thinkers, such as Martha Nussbaum or Noam Chomsky, have made it to our other lists of thinkers, and the members of this list were selected in part as not to overlap with the others.
1. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
A Calvinist minister who was part of the “Great Awakening”, a revivalist movement in Protestant Europe and British North America that focused less on ritual and more on personal experience. Edwards argued in Freedom of the Will that God’s supreme sovereignty, his foreknowledge, and the requirement that events have causes prohibits our having much free will.
He toured extensively at the height of the movement, giving sermons on the grace of God, personal religious involvement, and religious fervor. Shortly before his death he replaced his grandson Aaron Burr as president of Princeton University.
You have reason to wonder that you are not already in hell.- A line from his sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”
2. Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
He was a philosopher, poor excuse for a solder, and author of one of the most widely read documents in American history. Thomas Paine was one of the more radical members of the intellectuals behind the American revolution, calling for independence in Common Sense long before anyone else was by using enlightenment notions of the rights of the ruled.
After the American revolution he moved to France, where he served in the national convention and helped to draft the first constitution of the French Republic-despite not speaking French. He published the book Agrarian Justice, which re-introduced the idea of the basic income to western thought. He also defended the French Revolution against Burke in the book The Rights of Man, in which he also proposed a state funded old age pension.
“A statue of gold should be erected to you in every city in the universe”- Told to Paine by his one-time revolutionary ally Napoleon Bonaparte, who claimed to have slept with a copy of The Rights of Man under his pillow.
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